The Origin of War:

The Evolution of a Male-Coalitional Reproductive Strategy

by Johan M.G. van der Dennen


TABLE OF CONTENTS


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1 The Origin of War: Introduction  

1.1 Why the Interest in (Primitive) War? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Complications of Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 The Concepts of Evolutionary Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.1 Evolution by Means of Natural Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.2 Competition and Conflict. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.3 Selfish Gene Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.4 Game Theory and the Concept of `Evolutionarily Stable Strategy' 16
1.2.5 Group Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.6 Cost/Benefit Calculus and `Good-for-the-Species' Thinking . . . 21
1.2.7 Kin Selection and Inclusive Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.2.8 Exploitative Manipulation and Evolutionary Arms Races . . . . . 26
1.2.9 Replicators and Vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.2.10 Adaptations and Adaptiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.2.11 ESS versus EQUUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.2.12 Ultimate versus Proximate Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.3 The Evolution of (Ritualized) Aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.3.1 Ritualized Aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.3.2 A Simple Model: The War of Attrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.3.3 Hawks and Doves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.3.4 The Prudent Hawk Gambit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.3.5 Pure, Mixed, and Conditional Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.3.6 Asymmetric Contests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.3.7 Conventional Fighting as Assessment of RHP. . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.3.8 The Evolution of Territoriality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.3.9 Dominance Hierarchies and Cost/Benefit Calculus . . . . . . . . 48
1.3.10 The Evolution of War? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.4 The Study of Primitive War: A Brief History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.4.1 Classical Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.4.2 The Widening of the Eurocentric World View. . . . . . . . . . . 57
1.4.3 The Age of the Philosophers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
1.4.4 War as a Cultural Invention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
1.4.5 The Rise of Academic Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
1.4.5.1 Evolutionism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1.4.5.2 Social Darwinism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
1.4.6 The Major Contemporary Anthropological Schools. . . . . . . . . 63
1.4.6.1 Ethnopsychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
1.4.6.2 Marxism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
1.4.6.3 The Cultural History School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
1.4.6.4 The `Grand Diffusionists' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
1.4.6.5 The `Sociological' School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
1.4.6.6 Functionalism and Structuralism . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
1.4.6.7 The Correlationists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
1.4.6.8 Evolutionary Bio-anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67


2 The Concept and Characteristics of War in Primitive Societies  

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.2 Quantitative Criteria in the Definition of War . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.3 Concepts and Definitions of `Primitive' War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.4 The Historical Continuity of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.5 Attempts to Define `True' War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.6 Types of Primitive Warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.7 Lex Talionis: Feuding and/or/versus Warfare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.7.1 The Concept of Feud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.7.2 Feud as a Juridical Mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
2.7.3 Feud as Outlaw Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
2.7.4 Primitive Warfare as an Extended Feud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.7.5 Feuding and Warfare: Distinct or Overlapping Categories? . . . . 87
2.7.6 Feuding and Warfare: Harsh Reality Strikes Back. . . . . . . . . 88
2.8 Interlude: Discussion and Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.9 The Forms and Tactics of Primitive Warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.9.1 Weapons and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.9.2 The Raid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.9.3 The Treacherous Feast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.9.4 The Pitched Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.10 General Characteristics of Primitive War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.11 The Hobbes-Rousseau Controversy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.11.1 A Study of War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.11.2 Other General Conclusions from the Q.Wright Study . . . . . . . 109
2.11.3 Cultural Evolution and War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
2.11.4 Belligerence and Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.11.5 War as `Agent of Progress'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2.11.6 Political Centralization and Military Sophistication. . . . . . 119
2.11.7 Other Correlates of Primitive Belligerence. . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.11.7.1 Primitive Militarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.11.7.2 Anti-Hedonism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.11.7.3 Combative Sports and Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
2.11.7.4 Matrilocality/Patrilocality, Feuding and Warfare . . . 131
2.11.7.5 Social-Structural and Psychocultural Dispositions. . . 134
2.11.7.6 Warfare Regulation in Primitive Societies. . . . . . . 137
2.11.7.7 Resource Unpredictability, Mistrust, and War . . . . . 139
2.11.7.8 Peace between Participatory Policies . . . . . . . . . 140
2.11.7.9 Fear and Inducement to Military Participation. . . . . 140
2.11.8 Epilogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142


3 Nonhuman Intergroup Agonistic Behavior and `Warfare'  

3.1 Intergroup Agonistic Behavior: Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
3.2 Animal `Wars'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
3.2.1 How Tiny Organisms Wage Huge Battles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
3.3 The Extent of Animal IAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
3.4 General Observations on IAB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
3.5 The Chimpanzee versus the Baboon IAB Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
3.6 Proximate Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
3.7 Socio-ecology: Making Sense of It All. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
3.8 Ultimate Explanations of Chimpanzee `Warfare'. . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
3.9 Chimpanzee Hunting and `Warfare' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
3.10 Criticism of the `Chimp-Model' of the Evolution of Warfare . . . . . . 193
3.11 The Evidence of Human Warfare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.11.1 Skeletal Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
3.11.2 Pictorial Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
3.11.3 Evidence from Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
3.11.4 Other Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
3.12 Some Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213


4 Biological and Ecological Theories of the Origin and Evolution of War  

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4.2 Social Darwinism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4.2.1 Racialism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
4.2.2 Evolutionism/Selectionism: The Struggle for Existence. . . . . . 221
4.2.3 Ignoble Savages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.2.4 Social Selectionism and Degenerationism. . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
4.2.5 The Moral Majesty of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.2.6 Instinctivism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
4.2.7 Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
4.3 The True Heirs of Malthus (and Hobbes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
4.4 Ecological-Demographic Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
4.4.1 The Savage Solution to the Malthusian Dilemma. . . . . . . . . . 261
4.4.2 Criticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
4.5 Functionalist and Multifunctionalist Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
4.5.1 Multiphase War Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
4.5.2 Criticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
4.5.3 General Criticism of Functionalist Theories. . . . . . . . . . . 273
4.6 Materialist Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
4.6.1 Land and Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
4.6.2 The Theoretical Basis of Materialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
4.6.3 Criticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
4.7 Group Territoriality and the Evolution of War. . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
4.7.1 Criticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
4.8 Hunting and Warfare: `Carnivorous Psychology' Theory . . . . . . . . . 290
4.8.1 The `Killer Ape' Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
4.8.2 A Reformulation of the Redirection Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . 293
4.8.3 The `Fear-Biter' Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
4.8.4 Criticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
4.9 The Balance-of-Power Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
4.9.1 Criticism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
4.10 Human Brain Evolution and Warfare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
4.11 Weapons, Intelligence, and Warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
4.11.1 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
4.12 Level-of-Selection and the Evolution of Warfare. . . . . . . . . . . . 308
4.12.1 Group Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
4.12.2 Genic/Individual Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
4.12.3 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
4.13 Cultural Filter Superimposition and Preadaptations . . . . . . . . . . 313
4.13.1 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
4.14 A Biocultural Approach to Human Nastiness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
4.15 From "Cherchez la ressource" to "Cherchez la femme". . . . . . . . . . 317
4.15.1 Blood Revenge, Women and Warfare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
4.15.2 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
4.15.3 Male Coalitional Psychology and the Evolution of War. . . . . . 322
4.15.4 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
4.15.5 Reproductive Success, Sexual Selection, and Conflict. . . . . . 327
4.15.6 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331


5 Cultural Theories and Proximate-Level Explanations of Primitive War  

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
5.1.1 Warrior versus Soldier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
5.1.2 A Brief Digression on `Causes of War'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
5.2 Sociocultural Selection and Evolution of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
5.2.0.1 Biphasic Theory of the Evolution of War. . . . . . . . . 342
5.2.0.2 The Four-Stage Model of the Evolution of War . . . . . . 347
5.2.0.3 The Levels of Military Organization. . . . . . . . . . . 351
5.2.0.4 Simple vs Middle-range Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
5.2.1 Warfare as Macroparasitism: The Prevailing View. . . . . . . . . 359
5.2.2 Marxism-Leninism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
5.2.3 Theory of the Unique Origin of War: The Diffusionists. . . . . . 364
5.2.4 War: A Social Theme and Cultural Invention . . . . . . . . . . . 365
5.2.4.1 Cultural-Learning Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
5.2.5 Frustration-Aggression Displacement Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 367
5.2.5.1 The Concept and Theories of Aggression . . . . . . . . . 367
5.2.5.2 Personal Aggressiveness and War. . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
5.2.5.3 `Belly hot with anger': Redirection of Aggression. . . . 381
5.2.6 Schismogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
5.2.7 Conflict Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
5.2.8 Exchange Theory, Reciprocity and War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
5.2.9 Unrestricted Primitive Warfare and Trap Psychology . . . . . . . 385
5.2.10 Psychoanalytic Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
5.2.10.1 The Sadomasochistic Theory of War: `Destructive orgasm' 388
5.2.10.2 Herd Instincts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
5.2.10.3 Filicide and Intergenerational Male Hostility . . . . . 390
5.2.10.4 War as Purification Rite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
5.2.10.5 War and the Paranoid Elaboration of Mourning. . . . . . 392
5.2.10.6 War as the Supreme Feast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
5.2.10.7 War-Breeding Complexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
5.2.10.8 The Emotional Satisfactions of War. . . . . . . . . . . 396
5.3 Assessment of Motives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
5.3.1 Blood Revenge: Lex Talionis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
5.3.2 Vanity Fair: War for Honor, Glory, Prestige. . . . . . . . . . . 410
5.3.3 Warfare as Callisthenics and Catharsis: Game-like wars . . . . . 412
5.3.4 Magico-Religious Motives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
5.3.4.1 Belief in, and Fear of, Magic and Witchcraft . . . . . . 417
5.3.4.2 Human Sacrifice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
5.3.4.3 Head- and Trophy-hunting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
5.3.5 `Twixt Eros and Thanatos': Sex, Women and Warfare. . . . . . . . 422
5.3.5.1 The Warrior Cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
5.3.6 War for Land and Territorial Encroachment. . . . . . . . . . . . 427
5.3.7 War for Booty and Spoils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
5.3.8 Cannibalism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
5.3.9 War for Slaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
5.3.10 Power, Conquest and Political Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . 433


6 Of Badges, Bonds and Boundaries: Ethnocentrism, Xenophobia and War  

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
6.1.1 The Collectiveness of Human Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
6.1.2 The Justification of Violence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
6.1.3 The Maliciousness of Ideological Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . 439
6.1.4 Symbol Systems-cum-Sentiment Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
6.1.5 Fear Susceptibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
6.2 Ethnocentrism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
6.3 Ethnocentrism: Brief History of the Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
6.4 Ethnocentrism and Nationalism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
6.5 The Adaptive Significance of Xenophobia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
6.5.1 The Function of Enemies and the Need to Have Enemies . . . . . . 460
6.6 Theories of Ethnocentrism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
6.6.1 Realistic Group Conflict Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
6.6.2 Sociopsychological Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
6.6.2.1 Group Narcissism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
6.6.2.2 Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
6.6.2.3 Compensatory or Protest Masculinity. . . . . . . . . . . 463
6.6.3 LeVine and Campbell's Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
6.7 Social Identity Theory and Group Animosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
6.8 Dynamics of In-group/Out-group Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
6.9 The Logic of Ethnocentrism: The Duality of the Human Mind. . . . . . . 473
6.9.1 Limited Sympathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
6.9.2 Group Identification and Prejudice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
6.9.3 Stereotypes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
6.9.4 Self-system and Self-deception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
6.9.5 Pre-judgments: The Logic of Probability. . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
6.9.6 Reduction of Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
6.9.7 Reification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
6.9.8 Emotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
6.10 Evolutionary Theories of Ethnocentrism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
6.10.1 Kin Selection and Inclusive Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
6.10.2 Cultural Badges and the Mechanisms of Kin Recognition . . . . . 484
6.10.3 The Ethnic Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
6.10.4 The Genetic Seeds of Warfare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
6.10.5 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493


7 The Politics of Peace in Primitive Societies: The Adaptive Rationale behind Corroboree and Calumet  

7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
7.2 The Security Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
7.3 Fierce Peoples?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
7.4 The Inventory of Allegedly Peaceful Societies. . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
7.5 Peace as the Normal Condition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
7.6 Prudent Feuders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
7.7 Peacefulness Does Not Equal Pusillanimity or `Gentleness'. . . . . . . 509
7.8 Bellicosity Does Not Equal Aggression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
7.9 Primitive War as a Post-Contact Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
7.10 The Characteristics of Peaceful Peoples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
7.11 A Typology of Peace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
7.11.1 Strategies of Negative Peace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
7.11.2 Strategies of Positive Peace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
7.12 Purification Rituals: Ambivalence toward the Enemy . . . . . . . . . . 532
7.13 Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534


8 By Way of Summary: An Evolutionario  

8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
8.2 Prelude: Humble Beginnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
8.3 Why Did Sex Evolve?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
8.3.1 Why Only Two Sexes?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
8.3.2 Quantity versus Quality: r- versus K-selection . . . . . . . . . 549
8.3.3 Sexual Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
8.3.4 Reproductive Success (RS) and Parental Investment Theory . . . . 552
8.4 Of Primates, HUCHIBOs and Hominids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
8.4.1 The Primate Adaptations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
8.4.2 The Pongid-Hominid Common Ancestor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
8.4.3 East of Eden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
8.4.4 Bipedalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
8.4.5 The Chimpanzee Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
8.4.6 Group Territoriality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
8.4.7 Social and Machiavellian Intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
8.4.8 Brains and the Cognitive Niche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
8.4.9 Sociality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
8.4.10 Hunting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
8.4.11 The Other Mammalian Social Hunters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
8.4.12 Tool Use and Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
8.4.13 The Human Mating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
8.4.14 Ecological Dominance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
8.4.15 War as a Parental Investment Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
8.4.16 Group Size and Balances of Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
8.4.17 The Agricultural Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
8.4.18 Epilogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Appendices (List of peoples allegedly without war)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Bibliography  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Dutch Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837
Index of Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843



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